# What valves to take the second octave on the pipe

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Digression: How many positions on a pipe can there be if it has 3 valves? For someone who is familiar with combinatorics, this is elementary: the pressed positions of the valves P = 3! = 1x2x3 = 6, taking into account the non-pressed valves, there will be a total of 7. They must be remembered:

1 position - no valve is pressed, 2 position - the second valve is pressed, 3 position - the first valve is pressed, 4 position - 1 and 2 valves are pressed, 5 position - 2 and 3 valves are pressed, 6 position - 1 and 3 valves are pressed, 7th position - 1 and 2 and 3 valves are pressed.

### Lessons playing the trumpet. Staccato

When playing the trumpet, the sound should be distinct with good air pressure, loud and sonorous. At the same time, it is as if pronouncing the short syllable "Ta". Choose the right moment to understand the mechanism of action of the tongue and air flow when playing staccato on the pipe. Position the tongue between the lips (like a valve), blocking the path of air, then quickly remove it, back and back with air supply.

This natural movement, familiar to everyone and similar to the “spitting” movement, but first you need to perform the following sequence: - keep the jaw extended forward, - inhale through the nose or corners of the mouth, - stick out your tongue, almost touching the mouthpiece, - hold the air before blowing , - press your lips slightly onto the mouthpiece, - say the word [Thah] (for those who speak English it is easy).

This arrangement of the tongue gives space in the sky for the passage of air. Mouth and tongue in the formation of a sound attack when playing the trumpet.

For the performers of the countries of the former union, it will be more understandable to arrange the language as if in “spitting”. If we dwell on the pronunciation in more detail, the first consonant [Th] in the syllable [Thah] is a slit sound with a voice - a gap should be formed between the front edge of the tongue and the upper teeth. The second vowel [a] is an obscure sound similar to Russian “a” under stress. And the last consonant [h] is just an exhalation. Differences in performing schools for brass instruments.

Staccato is a heavy trumpet exercise, but nothing more than other exercises. Remember, however, that there are different types of staccato. The physiological structure of the jaw and mouth also plays an important role, so you need to look for your own setting of the ear cushion. In order to determine how easy it is to play the staccato pipe, you need to experiment with the position of the tongue and lips.

For example: - the language exactly in the middle is not too advanced, the language is just below the middle, the language is exactly in the middle put forward, the language is slightly above the middle.

All of these options, when playing the trumpet, are suitable for different types of staccato. Pick notes for staccato and do exercises, resting between them. Breathe smoothly and slowly. Listen to yourself and other artists by comparing and analyzing. Give air from the lower abdomen, do not play with sloth!

There are alternatives with a lighter linguistic staccato - to position the tongue above the end of the arch of the teeth, inside and attached to the gum, pronouncing the sounds [Tch] and [Tchz]. In practice, you will realize that a light staccato (inside) is better for accurate, clean and quick trumpet playing than a heavy staccato (outside) that is best suited for military or jazz trumpet playing.

The sequence and posture when approaching the staccato: - bring the instrument to the prepared jaw, - take a breath, locking the ear pads and tongue, - let out the air immediately removing the tongue [Thouh], - free lip vibration will give a full sound when playing the pipe.

### Lessons playing the trumpet. Valuable comments

To start playing the trumpet and playing music, it is very useful to use a metronome. Make sure you hear it and set it to a speed of 60 to 80. Get used to using the metronome all the time when playing any exercises on the trumpet, changing the speed as necessary. Try to do the exercise using all 7 positions from top to bottom. You need to learn to read sheet music. Pick up the notes and practice. At first it will be a little difficult to reproduce the "right sounds." You must learn to use the exact amount and speed of air flow for each particular note. The essence of playing the trumpet is the quality of your air flow, and therefore it is extremely important to create a stable and consistent air column to fill the instrument with sound. The air stream must be collected in a stream and not sprayed on the sides.

Keep your lips together, especially in the corners of your mouth. Vibration must occur between the lips - air is the mouthpiece, and not just between the two lips! Remember: if you press on the lips, you will have a bad sound, and they get tired very quickly. Learn how to create, if necessary, more or less air column pressure. Of crucial importance is the setting, as you observe the position of the muscles of the face, chin, head, teeth and body position. Learn to read and sing notes, make sure they match with real sounds, and distinguish them not only by name.

## How to take high notes on a MuzShock trumpet

The complexity of wind instruments is that the pitch does not depend so much on the hands as on:

Professionals can even play the same note in two to three octaves, without changing the fingering. But beginner trumpeters have problems extracting high notes on the instrument. And this is connected not least with a lack of training.

In this article we will show you which way to move in order to get the result more quickly. But do not forget that pipe lessons with a wind teacher are more effective than following a tutorial.

Proper breathing is a key component in playing wind instruments. A large supply of air will allow you to play long passages, and the ability to create a dense air stream is the basis for high notes. This rule applies not only to the trumpet: flute, saxophone, harmonica and even a whistle - each instrument obeys the laws of physics. In this case, the law says that the more air passes through the hole per unit of time and the smaller the hole, the higher the sound.

It turns out that high notes come out clearly and correctly, you need to learn how to exhale with support on the diaphragm - only it can provide a powerful push of the air stream in time.

Ear pads are a way to add trumpeter lips to play. The height of the note changes as you move and move the corners. The explanation is the law already cited. To play a high note, reduce the clearance between the lips. To do this, fold them as if you decided to whistle a tune. But do not fold lips with a tube, but, on the contrary, squeeze. A feeling of tension is normal.

### High Note Exercises

To expand the working range, play scales at the beginning of each lesson. Start with the most comfortable notes, then go higher. The duration of each note is not less than ½. When you go through the range available to you, try to extract notes an octave higher, without changing the fingering - only at the expense of exhalation, tongue and ear cushion.

You can prepare yourself for such sound extraction by playing “pedal” notes - notes that are below the instrument range. The secret is that the ear pads for playing notes beyond the lower limits of the instrument are the same as for playing in upper case. This will hone the skill, because low notes are easier to extract.

(Italian - Tromba, French - Trompette, German - Trompete, English - trumpet)

The history of the pipe goes into the distant past and at present it is difficult to establish which of the ancient peoples owns its invention. A natural pipe was used as a signal tool.

In the era of the Middle Ages, a straight metal pipe is used not only as a signal tool, but also to accompany all kinds of ceremonies and rituals. Only nobles and knights used this tool. The European trumpet was called elderberry (old star - buisine). The first mention of the use of pipes in Russia dates back to the 10th century.

Already at the beginning of the XIII century. there was a separation of pipes into high (treble) and low (bass). Subsequently, the pipes, like the horn, began to be divided into low, medium and high of different tunings. In the XVII century. most often used instruments in the re, until, later B flat, made by German music masters Schmidt, Nagel, Heinlein, Faith and the English masters Dudley and W. Boole. At the turn of the XVII — XVIII centuries. some of the best were pipes by I. Has from Nuremberg. Instruments were made of copper, bronze, silver. In the XVIII - early XIX century. the most common were the pipes of the building fa with additional crowns in the systems of mi, e-flat, d-flat and do. During this period, pipes made at the Moscow factory of musical instruments by Russian masters N.P. Kotelnikov, D. and S. Mikhailovs and I.S. Khrapovitsky became widespread.

With the invention at the beginning of the XIX century. of the valve mechanism, natural pipes began to gradually be replaced by chromatic ones, and at the end of the century they completely went out of use. From a large family of pipes, medium-sized instruments were used more often than others: E-flat, E and F. Their lower and middle registers were distinguished by a wide full sound, the upper one sounded tense and represented great difficulty for the performers.

In the late 80s of the XIX century. new chromatic pipes of high arrays were designed: la, B flat and do. It became possible to extract all the sounds of the second octave on them. The most successful of these instruments was the b-flat soprano pipe, which is still in use today. In France, Belgium, Switzerland and some other countries, the most common pipe in performing practice was the trumpet system. In Russia at the beginning of the XX century. most often used valve pipes company Yu. G. Zimmerman.

Currently, the tools of the French company Selmer and the American Bach Stradivarius are widely used. For pop and jazz orchestras, pipes of special designs are made, adapted to extract high sounds.

The pipe, or soprano pipe, is made of brass or tompac (an alloy of copper with zinc). It consists of a cylindrical tube about 1.5 m long, about 11 mm in diameter, turning into a conical, and a crescent-shaped mouthpiece. The trunk is bent twice and represents a single whole with a bell. The fingering of the pipe is similar to the fingering of the cornet (see example 97). The trumpet building in B flat is a transposing instrument. Noted in a treble clef, sounds like a big second below what was written. The range and characteristics of the registers (by letter, see example 92).

The trumpet is the highest of brass instruments. Its sound is distinguished by strength, brilliance and at the same time lightness and mobility. The valve mechanism of the instrument allows you to brilliantly perform all kinds of passages, arpeggios, jumps, valve trills, single, double and triple staccato. It is also possible to take frulato, which has some similarities with the fraction of a snare drum. In the process of execution, various types of mutes are often used, which are mainly used to artificially change the timbre of an instrument.

The piccolo trumpet, building in B flat and la, was designed for solo performance of ancient music (clarino style, etc.), as well as for playing high-register trumpet parts in the orchestra (“Sacred Spring” by I. Stravinsky, “Bolero” by M. Ravel, "Mischievous ditties" by R. Shchedrin and others).

The piccolo trumpet in B-flat sounds an octave, and the la - in large septim above the main instrument. The tool has four valves. The fourth valve is used to extract the four lower sounds (to expand the range of the instrument down), as well as to more accurately intonate some unstable sounds.

Small trumpet building re and E flat. The instrument was designed to play high trumpet parts in some works by Bach and Handel. This tool was also used in their works by Rimsky-Korsakov and Wagner. The small pipe of the building is tuned with a large third, while the building in E flat is tuned with a clean quarto above the main instrument. The design and technical capabilities of a small pipe are similar to a soprano pipe.

Alto pipe building fa and salt. The instrument was designed at the initiative of Rimsky-Korsakov in order to achieve greater completeness of the sound of a low register. Rimsky-Korsakov first used this instrument in the opera “Mlada” and a number of other compositions. Then it was used in some of his works by Glazunov. The alto pipe building fa is set up by a pure quartet, building the salt by a small third below the soprano pipe. Technically, this tool is less mobile than the main one.

Bass trumpet tuning to, re, in E flat. The instrument was built on the initiative of R. Wagner, who used bass pipes in the Nibelung ring tetralogy. Iotized in a treble clef. Subsequently, a bass trumpet was built, building a B flat sounding an octave below the main instrument. The technical capabilities of the bass pipe compared to soprano are more limited. This instrument has a timbre similar to the trombone and horn tones simultaneously. It is used very rarely.

## Alteration Signs

As we have already noted, the NOTES are recorded sounds, that is, graphic signs. And to record the main notes in different octaves, a musical staff, keys, rulers are used. And for recording modified notes, there are signs too - ALTERATION SIGNS: sharps, flats, backists, double sharps and double flats.

Sharp Sign It looks like a lattice on the telephone keypad or, if you like, like a small ladder, it tells us about raising the notes. The name of this sign comes from the Greek word "diet."

Sign BEMOL it signals us a lowered note, it looks like the English or Latin printed letter “be” (b), only the lower part of this letter is pointed (it looks like an inverted droplet). Flat is a French word, albeit with a Latin etymology. The term is formed by very simple elements: “be” - this is the letter “be” (b), and “mole” means “soft”, that is, a flat is just “soft b”.

BEKAR sign - a very interesting sign, it cancels the effect of flats and sharps and says that you need to play the usual note, not raised and not lowered. By spelling, the baker is slightly angular, it looks like the number 4, only closed on top not with a triangle, but with a square, and it also looks like the letter “be” (b), only “circled” and with a stroke down. The name "becar" is of French origin and translates as "square be".

DOUBLE DIEZ Sign , there is one that is used to double increase the note, it is a diagonal cross (almost the same cross that is written when they play tic-tac-toe), only with extended, slightly rhomboid tips.

Sign DOUBLE BEMOL , accordingly, speaks of a double lowering of the note, the principle of writing this sign is the same as that of the English letter W (double V), just not one, but two flats are placed next to each other.

Simon, help me figure it out, please!
Lips should close. Is that lower lip behind the upper? or not necessary? Or something else?
And what is the volume inside? How to create it! What sensations should be?
Thank.

Greetings, Eugene! Of course, to describe the sensations in the text is not easy, but I will try.
Does this mean the phrase “lips should be able to close”? When the mouthpiece margins are on the red part of the lips, the lips lose mobility, which is shown in the video by the link in the text. In this case, without changing the setting of the mouthpiece, the question of the upper register is solved by pressure on the lip - it is flattened, and thus a more tight closure occurs inside the mouthpiece. Play so long and high will not work - blood flow is blocked. Bonus - swollen lips, calluses.

Closing - lip to lip. The structure of the face can be influenced by the direction of the air stream, the general idea for a full sound in the entire range is that the lips are closed so as to direct air through the mouthpiece into the instrument without refraction of the air stream.

The idea of ​​"maintaining volume inside" is intended to prevent clamping of the lower jaw and tightening of the lower lip. Although the images are individual from student to student, the image-feeling is often triggered - “keep molars / back teeth open”.
Good luck

Semyon, what do you think of the George Rawlin methodology, part of which he demonstrates in this video https://youtu.be/joCN-3rZ2n8?

Hello German! Thank you for your comment. I can give a subjective opinion, since I do not have sufficiently complete information about this technique. For many years I watched hundreds of such videos, including George Rawlin. Yes, there are things that are correct in my opinion, but very sophisticated. There are dozens of methods, if not the same hundreds - the majority are too complicated for an unprepared person to perceive. For the teacher - you can see, think again. For a student - you can break firewood and then not rake it.
An important criterion for me personally is that I don’t like how his instrument sounds. My students will immediately find out that I do not teach to play purposefully “before” the 4th octave, although sometimes we indulge. Переучиваться большинство приходят с тем, что проблемно извлекаются звуки во второй октаве и это, конечно, не нормально — поправляем. Мы в первую очередь учимся играть красиво в основном диапазоне трубы — «фа#» малой — «ре» 3-й, остальное — спорт. Кто хочет, тот потом занимается этим :).

Здравствуйте Семён.Помогите пожалуйста советом.Мой сын занимается на трубе каждый день,но проблема в том,что до ноты соль второй октавы у него хороший звук,а выше уже проблема.Звук или очень зажатый или ноты вообще не берутся,что делать незнаем.Заранее вам благодарен.

Здравствуйте, Сергей! Очень мало информации для поиска причины. How old is the son engaged in the pipe? What exactly do you mean by good sound and by problem sound? Maybe the video lay out with scales in C major, F major and G major? We will analyze.
If salt2 is taken perfectly, and la2 is suddenly very squeezed - this is psychology. And it happens, but rarely. Most likely, the difficulties begin earlier, and after salt2 they reach a critical mass. And it is important to understand that this is not a matter of some kind of secret and that after I give some important information, the son will immediately play. It will not be so.
The fact that you are not indifferent to the work of your son is a very important part of success. I still have, for example, my father translated H. Clark’s exercises from English - in a beautiful cover with printed texts under each page. Despite the fact that he studied French and did not know English, he sat at night with a dictionary by the lamp. It’s worth a lot - your son is very lucky with his parents.

Hello Semyon, thank you so much for answering. The essence of the matter is this. My son is going to college. It so happened that he graduated from a music school in the pho-no class. He entered the pipe. We have no wind class in the music school. He is engaged in the pipe he’s only a year and a half, he’s in his first year at college. But for a year and a half, he has been studying every day, from half past six in the morning, it turns out somewhere in general for about four, five, but something goes wrong. I myself used to play a former military musician the pipe, and now retired. But I am me, and he is he. It seems he probably has something with lips, the upper lip covers the lower, I think it is so, this is my opinion, or something else that I can’t understand, therefore I ask your advice. how should the lips be parallel or not or such a setting as normal I can’t send the video since it is in Khabarovsk, and I am in the Amur Region.

Sergey, 4-5 hours is really a lot. What does the son himself think about this? Does he think something is wrong? The issue of formulation is decided in the text is a thankless task. It depends on the structure of the face and there are well-known trumpeters who, according to the method, should not play at all, but they play, and it happens, is better than those who play clearly by the method.
Of course, from the point of view of logic, the lips should be parallel and most often this position gives the best results in sound power, exposure, but staging can give an advantage in one element and complicate the performance in another. Look at the production of Sergei Nakaryakov: he does not have a powerful sound, but there is accuracy and flexibility.
Visually in his youth he had the same overlap - the upper lip to the lower. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aV9_2am19rU
At a more mature age, the overlap is no longer so noticeable and, of course, more mature breathing appeared - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBOCxAuqwp4
Without looking at the student, I can only give advice to pay close attention to the work of breathing. It eliminates the flaws in the production, if any. And I will direct to the answer above, to the comment of Eugene, in particular: “the idea of“ preserving the volume inside ”is intended to prevent clamping of the lower jaw and tightening of the lower lip. Although the images are individual from student to student, the image-feeling is often triggered - “keep molars / back teeth open”. It is highly advisable to find a good teacher surrounded by your son. I think it’s practically impossible to change something without a teacher for a long time. We need a professional view from the outside, constant monitoring of what is happening. I was already a semi-professional at the time of the problems, it took me a while, think about it, for more than 10 years! And a lot of nerves. And this is one of the main reasons why it is really worth looking for a good teacher - the path to the goal will be greatly reduced.

Hello Semyon. Today I talked with my son’s teacher, it turns out that for some reason he has two lips clamped together. And it turns out that he plays normally to the note fa and the salt of the second octave, and from these notes problems begin, sound or too or no notes are taken at all. This is the problem, and his teacher is a horn player who has released many good and talented musicians, both horn players and trumpeters, and I have no complaints about him. Just looking for help, maybe you have encountered such problem oh.

Sergey, the situation is similar to the one described in the text About Me. You are so emotionally involved in the search for an answer that you did not pay attention to it when it is already there.
I have encountered similar problems many times and successfully solve them. The answer was: "most likely, the difficulties begin earlier, and after salt2 they reach a critical mass" - "pay attention to the work of breathing." The principle of “do no harm” is very important to me. Identification and solution of serious problems, work on breathing - require contact with the student, a systematic approach and time. Sometimes the issue is resolved quickly, more often it takes longer work - they are serious problems. Regarding the claims of the teacher, there is no question about them - none of us knows everything. In any case, Sergey, patience and success to you, son and teacher.

Semyon Hello. Please tell me, can my son contact you on Skype, if so, what is the best way to do this? Or just record a video and send it to you? I would really like you to watch and give advice, otherwise he’s already got a horn "Matchmaking." He really likes the pipe, he is engaged with great desire, but from without source he himself does not know what to do.

Maybe, of course - this is even more visual than the video. My skype is rustrumpeter. The price and time of the lesson can be agreed there. I also got married and a trombone, and a bassoon, and advised to quit - it is always easier to advise and give up. If you really like the pipe and with great desire is engaged, then he will find the way. If you need my help, call +79037772218 or skype.

Hello Semyon. Until I corresponded with you to solve the problem, they already handed him the French horn. The "persuaders" were cooler than me. And now, at the end of the month, my son is also being taken into the army. Sorry for taking the time from you, it was nice to talk.

This discussion may help someone else. Thanks for sharing the issue. Good luck to you and your son.

It turns out - it got better! thank! :))

Good afternoon, the problem is that the upper lip is swollen and the lower, like irritation, what should I do, is this normal? I play for a week, for 25 minutes about a day maybe not higher than the first octave and not even higher than the fa. The only mouthpiece that was, maybe better more? or maybe the lips do not fit into it, or from other material you need not brass with a spray

Good day, Sergey. Details are needed.
Lips during the game can swell a little, because blood rushes to the muscles. Do you have any discomfort? There can be a lot of guesses: breathing does not work correctly, the mouthpiece has an unsuccessful position, lips are folded incorrectly or push on them, force a sound, allergy. Follow the tips in the article again. I get a lot of messages that the described techniques help before classes with me. If something is not clear or you need to supplement the text - let's figure it out and do it.
“Not higher than the first octave and not even higher than the fa” - not higher than the “fa” of the first octave?
"The mouthpiece that was" - where did you get it? what size and depth, which company? If the pipe is new, one of the well-known companies, then the mouthpiece is standard 7C according to Bach. If you bought with your hands - you need to look at what they put there. And what does it mean, “maybe lips can't fit into it”? Do you feel uncomfortable or suggesting?
See also if the pipe inside is clean, does not siphon anywhere? And is everything spun correctly. I am writing because there are calls with fear in my voice and the words "I broke the pipe!" I remember when I received the first such call and was a little scared myself). Due to inexperience, they sometimes lubricate the valves and screw them in incorrectly - there is a sound, but as if a pipe is full of holes).
Material, mouthpiece size, instrument - such things very rarely play a significant role in the first steps. Check it all for compliance with the conditions described above and if everything is in order, direct 90% of your attention to the work of breathing, air. How does inspiration, exhalation and how air then goes into the instrument. This is a big part of success in learning to play the trumpet.

Thank you for the answer. The result is that they swell a lot, small pimples appear, and a clear liquid runs, they may look like a cold, usually I play 15 minutes and that's it. I thought at first that I had a cold, I played at minus 15 minutes. Now I don’t know myself.
I took everything. I cleaned the valves. There is a video of how I play, here is a link, I shot it for my friends, but in a manner like for a blog) The lip swells even from the first if you play it for 10 minutes.

Sergey, the result of what? They went through articles, read tips? 🙂 I watched your video. I am for frankness - catch everything honestly)) A video of 15 minutes is very difficult to watch, with 1% of information, not to mention cigarette propaganda. I don’t understand why you are trying to learn to play, if you yourself can’t play anything yet. The shooting point is far away and constantly clearly covered with a glove and a tube of lips. It's like a runner will show his running technique, and the chest is visible on the video)) Based on the above, it is difficult to advise. Buzzing is not done right - you need more air in it and pick up your lips. Judging by the sound, the same thing applies to playing the trumpet - do not stick the red part of the lips forward, pick it up, and you will finally get something higher than salt1. A lip from “do1” with your playing style will swell more than from “salt1” or “do2”. And secondly, work on breathing - its work is not enough yet. Although, I advise you to take deep breaths in and out in such weather ... Why are you doing this cold, I don’t understand ... Good luck!

Hello Semyon. I have been practicing the trumpet for 5 years and recently I ran into a problem: starting from the second octave, I press my lips hard, there is a very obvious trace. Also, starting from the same note, the sound quality noticeably worsens (there is a hiss, the sound is dimmer). If this is serious, tell me how to fix it.

Hello Arthur. 5 years is a very good time. Do you work out professionally or as an amateur? With the correct formulation and if you are doing it stably, “do3” should already be absolutely accurate. Most likely, the difficulties were initially and the higher the required level, the more they manifest themselves. Is the trace disappearing or permanent? Have a photo / video? Or write me in skype - rustrumpeter.

Do you do skype? And how do you feel about skype classes in difficult cases? Thank.

Hello! Sorry for the long reply, just saw your comment. Yes, we also do skype. The complexity of each case is individual - when changing the setting, face-to-face exercises, at least a few, are preferable. But in general, the modern quality of communication allows most aspects to be controlled via Skype.

Hello Semen. I read all your notes. Thank you, very useful information. My question is this. Does the shape of the lips matter when picking a pipe or horn? My son has puffy lips. A teacher at a music school (trumpeter) said that the child would not play with such lips. In another music school, his son was taken to the horn. Are we killing time. Is it better to change the tool or still work?

Hello, Elena. Thank you very much for the nice words.
Regarding puffy lips: it is important to learn how to properly assemble them. You already know this little guy with full lips -
But for clarity, a few more trumpeters with full lips, which the whole world knows, and, moreover, after your question, I realized that almost all trumpeters from my personal TOP with full lips 🙂
Winton Marsalis

Roy Hargrove

Clifford brown

The teacher who said this, the child will definitely not play. So he does not know how to work with it. If this is the only teacher available to you, then the chances are not great ... My questions are: is it a pipe? Do you want the child to play the trumpet or does the child want to? And how much is this desire?

Thank you, Semyon, for such encouragement. You can’t imagine how delighted I am with your words, and the child, too. We started practicing on the horn. We were received with full lips. The child is 10 years old. He wants, he tries and he succeeds. THANK.

Good afternoon. I have a problem that I have been struggling with for many years, but now the situation is starting to get out of control. I have a good teacher (a trumpeter, now a conductor), but unfortunately he didn’t change the apparatus as such upon admission (in college yet), he gave me a mouthpiece and said “he’ll recover.” The teacher is very good in terms of music and tips, but he didn’t climb into the device on purpose, because everything was individual, and only said to put out a little jaw (How the hell should I do this during the game?) Nothing has changed, although with the timbre and technology is fine. I know how breathing works and always try to play with it. Good double (and a little triple) tongue, I also speak lip trills. Everything goes except one - upper case. The same problem was in music school and college. Now I am studying at the 1st course at the university in the class of pipes. And now specifically to the problem. When playing, I press very strongly (sometimes to severe pain) the mouthpiece (even I would say the pipe) to the upper lip, as soon as I start to go up to 3 octaves. What is strange, it is the hand that presses, as if it rests in this way, but I myself stand under the mouthpiece, and after the game there is always an imprint on the upper lip. Several times he tried to change the setting himself to "more correct" (parallel lips, smooth vibration, a smooth pillar of air, etc.) as written in the clever books of the same Arban. But he always returned to the old. From the very music school, my lower lip seemed to roll a little under the upper one due to the structure of the jaw, I don’t know how to remove it now after so many years, this is like a reflex .. And from that I can’t do normal buzzing, because lips are not parallel to each other. If you look like this, then I should not play with such an apparatus at all. But the very existence of me suggests otherwise. And interestingly, the young Nakaryakov had the same thing. Getting on to and with luck above only happens if I make a good compression in the diaphragm, gather the muscles of the apparatus and try not to squeeze .. And only if I'm not tired and clogged. Then it will be taken, and rarely it is juicy and timbre. More often, it’s “grabbed by the throat”. But is there not much effort for a simple up to 3 octaves? Trumpeters who are younger than me play higher and do not strain, while I either catch kicks, or get tired much faster than they do. No one can help me, no matter who I ask. Now I play in a student symphonic orchestra, on 1 pipe, where I constantly have a, second, up to 3 octaves in working form. It’s very hard for me, I come to “wake up” myself in the morning. But I have some kind of barrier, it’s up to 3 .. and so for 2-3 years. I constantly try to punch this one up, but my lips get clogged up very quickly. Perhaps it’s not the device, but I just don’t know what to do. I would never write somewhere, but at least someday I need to start. I am from Krasnoyarsk, if this somehow helps the cause. Thank you in advance.

Hello Arthur! To give an answer on your case, you need to see how you play. Please send a video to [email protected] - the “Gol” major is legato in two-octave quarters with a minor in the second, staccato quarters, two-octave triad and “broken” triads (G-C-D-G / C) -re-G-si, etc.), and the scale “Do” major in the same style. If you don’t know something confidently - play something similar that you know for sure. You can write something else that you consider important to show. Or contact me on Skype - rustrumpeter.
I will write my attitude to the change / correction of the setting:
It is necessary to use all possible moves, and correctly, what they wrote. By writing, mono get an answer without writing an answer, you definitely won’t get it. About your teacher: you can learn different things from different teachers, I’m not going to attack anyone and I believe you that he is good.
Further, with the phrase “unfortunately he didn’t change the device” - it may be good that the teacher decided not to experiment with you. Just take from him what you value him for, and with problems on the device you can look elsewhere. He may even consult with him, because most likely your teacher is not indifferent to your success, and he will be happy to help.
Often they try to change the setting of the lips where the lips have nothing to do with it, or they just compensate for problems in other parts of the apparatus - breathing, neck, etc. I am not a supporter of changing the apparatus according to the principle "everyone needs to put their lips in a certain way, align the angle ... and then there will be all the registers." All registers may appear, but other strengths may leave - flexibility, a pleasant timbre, attack, control. It is necessary to analyze and not rush to radically change the setting after each video watched, even from super trumpeters. There are many similar examples of “bad” production; you named one of them - Sergey Nakaryakov. Another similar example among our compatriots, trumpeters of the TOP level: Alex Sipyagin, who was also told that the production should be changed. The fact that the whole world knows these names and does not know the names of advisers puts everything in its place. It is necessary to work with problems and it is important to protect your health. Having the opportunity to play for a long time and in any registers is good. Будет обидно, если Сергей Накаряков через 10 лет не сможет играть на том уровне, на котором играет сейчас — хочется, чтобы он радовал своих поклонников как можно дольше. Но есть и другая сторона: если бы он играл во всех регистрах и большим звуком, то не был бы Сергеем Накаряковым. Да, Тимофей Докшицер выпускал записи с помарками, советовал не заниматься больше двух часов в день, но он записывал дубли целиком и наверняка выбирал не по чистоте, но самый близкий к его музыкальной задумке дубль. Играют идеально чисто, занимаются целыми днями, а дотянуться до его уровня в построении фразы и плавности переходов не получается… Мой первый конкурс был имени Т.А. Докшицера в 1996 году, председателем жюри был Тимофей Александрович.I studied for about 1.5 years, my peers for 3-4. The attack was still weak, I played a concert of Albinoni and in the fast part half “that” was “pfa”, but I received the III prize. What are the criteria? Definitely not in terms of cleanliness. The case when the III prize is more expensive for me than all my I-s. Our beauty is often not in ideality.

Hello! I have had a problem for almost half a year. Excerpt gone somewhere. The top has disappeared. I come to work out, I play for 10 minutes, the sound starts to troit and exfoliate. As soon as the lips get a little tired, it immediately troits and exfoliates. Maybe you have encountered such a problem or you know someone who has encountered. I am now in the 5th year of cons, soon the state. I'm getting worse and worse. If you can meet or work out on Skype?

Moscow you Konsa ?? Faced myself. I'll fly in, skype - rustrumpeter

## How do sharps and flats change notes?

Let's start with this observation. Everyone who looks at the piano keyboard will notice that it has white and black keys. And with the white keys, usually everything is clear, it is on them that you can play familiar notes to DO RE MI FA SAL LA SI. To find the DO note on the piano, we focus on the black keys: where there are two black keys, the DO note is to the left of them, and all the other notes come from the DO in a row. If you are still not good with piano keys, we recommend that you study the material.

And why then do you need black? Just for orientation in space? But on black, the so-called sharps and flats are played - raised and low notes. But more on that later, but now we need to deal with the principle. Sharp and flat notes raise or lower notes by HALF. What does this mean and what is a semitone?

Halftone is the smallest distance between two sounds. And on the piano keyboard, a half-tone is the distance from one key to the nearest neighbor. And here both white and black keys are taken into account - without gaps.

Halftones are formed when we go up from the white key to the next black, or when, on the contrary, go down from some black to the nearest white. And there is also a midtone between the white keys, or rather, between the sounds of MI and FA, as well as SI and DO. Look carefully at these keys - there are no black keys between them, nothing separates them, which means that they are also closest to each other and there is also a semitone distance between them. We recommend these two unusual midtones (MI-FA and SI-DO) to be remembered, they will come in handy again and again.

## Sharp and flat flats on a piano keyboard

If a sharp increases the note by a semitone (or you can also say half a tone), then this means that when we play a sharp on the piano, we need to take the note a semitone higher (that is, the main neighbor). For example, if you want to play DO-SHIELD, then we play the nearest black key from DO, which is located to the right of the white DO (that is, we take a semitone in the direction of increase). If you need to play RE-DIES, we do exactly the same: play the next key, which is a half-tone higher (black to the right of white PE).

But what if there is no black key next to the right? Remember our white halftones MI-FA and SI-DO. How to play C-DIIZE, if there is no black key to the right of it upwards, and how to play C-DIIZE, which has the same story? And all according to the same rule - we take a note on the right (that is, in the direction of increase), which is half a tone higher. Well, let it be not black, but white. It also happens - the white keys here help each other out.

Look at the picture, here on the keys of the piano all the sharps are written, which are in the octave:

And you probably guessed about the flats yourself. To play the flat on the piano, you need to take the key a semitone lower (that is, downward - on the left). For example, if you want to play RE-BEAR, then take the black key to the left of the white RE, if MI-BEAR, then to the left of the white MI. And, of course, in white halftones the notes of each other help out again: FA BEMOL matches the MI key, and DO BEMOL the SI.

In the picture all the flats on the piano keys are now signed:

## What about double sharps and double flats?

And double sharps and double flat - double rises and double lows, of course, change the note immediately by two semitones. Two half tones are two half tones. If you connect the two halves of something, you get something one whole. If you connect two halftones, you get one whole tone.

Thus, it turns out that DOUBLE-DIIZ increases the note immediately by a whole tone, and DOUBLE-DIUM reduces the note by a whole tone. Or two semitones, if you like it more.

## How to speak and how to write?

RULE No. 1. Here we all say: DO-CIARIZE, RE-CIENDE, E-BEMOL, A-BEMOL. But you need to write in notes differently, on the contrary - DIES-DO, DIIZ-RE, BEMOL-MI, BEMOL-LA. That is, a sharp or flat sign is placed before the note in advance, like a warning sign for a motorist. It’s too late to put a flat or sharp after a note, because a white note has already been played, because a falsity has already turned out. Therefore, it is imperative to write the desired character in front of the note.

RULE №2. Any sign must be placed exactly on the same line where the note itself is written. That is, the sign should be next to the note, it is like a guard guarding it. But the sharps and flats that are written on the wrong rulers or even fly somewhere in space are wrong.

## Key and random sharps and flats

Sharp and flat, that is, signs of alteration, are of two types: KEY and RANDOM. What is the difference? First about random characters. Everything should be clear here by name. Random - these are those that come across in the musical text by chance, like a mushroom in the forest. A random sharp or flat is played only in that musical measure where you came across it, and in the next measure - they play the usual white note.

Key signs are those sharps and flats that are displayed in a special order next to the treble or bass clef. Such signs, if any, are placed (reminded) on each musical line. And they have a special action: all notes that are marked with sharps or flats, when played, are played as sharps or flats until the very end of a piece of music.

For example, if after the treble clef two sharps are delivered - FA and DO, then wherever we find the notes FA and DO, we will play them with sharps. True, sometimes these sharps can be canceled by random backers, but this, as you already know, only once, and then they are again played as sharps.

Or another example. After the bass clef, four flats are delivered - SI, MI, ALE and PE. What do we do? That's right, wherever we get these notes, we play them in flat. That’s all wisdom.

## Sharp order and flat order

By the way, key characters are never displayed after the key, anyhow, but always in the strictly established order. Each self-respecting musician should remember these orders and always know. The order of sharps is this: FA TO SALT RE LA MI SI. And the order of the flats is the same order of sharps, only a topsy-turvy: SI MI LA RE SALT TO FA.

That is, if there are three sharps next to the key, it will necessarily be FA, DO and SAL - the first three in order, if five, then FA, DO, SAL, PE and ALE (five sharps in order, starting from the beginning). If we see two flats after the key, then these will necessarily be SI and MI flats. Do you understand the principle?

And now one more important thing. The fact is that key signs are displayed not only in a certain order, but also always on the same lines. In the picture, which will be presented below, you will see the correct location on the stave of all seven sharps and seven flats in the treble and bass clef. Watch and memorize, and even better - rewrite several times in your notebook. Stuff your hand, as they say.

## Designation of sharps and flats according to the alphabetic system

You've probably already heard that there is a system for lettering sounds. According to this system, notes are written in letters of the Latin alphabet: C, D, E, F, G, A, H. Seven letters correspond to seven notes DO RE MI FA SAL LA and SI. But to indicate the changed notes, instead of the words sharp and flat, the suffixes IS (sharp) and ES (flat) are added to the letters. You can read more about this and about what features and exceptions to the rules are in the article.

And now - a musical exercise. In order to better remember what a sharp, flat and baker are and what is their strength, together with the guys from the Fidget Ensemble learn the song of L. Abelyan from the collection of Funny Solfeggio about these signs (watch the video).

In this article we continue the conversation about musical notation - we will study the signs of alteration. What is alteration? Alteration Is a change in the main steps of the scale (the main steps are do re mi fa sol la si) What exactly is changing? Their height and a little name change.

Sharp Is a half-tone increase in sound, flat - lowering it by half a ton. After the note is changed, then one word is simply added to its main name - accordingly, a sharp or a flat. For example, C sharp, F sharp, A flat, E flat etc. In the notes, sharps and flats are indicated by special signs, which are also called sharps and flat . Another sign is used - natural , it cancels all alteration, and then, instead of a sharp or a flat, we play the main sound.

See how it looks in the notes:

### What is a halftone?

Now let's understand everything in more detail. What kind of halftones are these? Semitone - This is the shortest distance between two adjacent sounds. Let's look at an example of a piano keyboard. Here is an octave with signed keys:

What do we see? We have 7 white keys and the main steps are located on them. It seems to be a fairly short distance between them, but, nevertheless, there are black keys between the white keys. We have 5 black keys. It turns out that in total there are 12 sounds, 12 keys in an octave. So, each of these keys in relation to the nearest neighboring one is located at a semitone distance. That is, if we play all 12 keys in a row, then we play all 12 halftones.

### Double Sharp and Double Flat

In addition to simple sharps and flats, it is also used in musical practice. double sharp and double flat . What are doubles are double changes of steps. In other words, double sharp increases the note by two semitones at once (i.e. by a whole tone), and double flat - lowers the note by a whole tone (one tone is two semitones ).

Natural - This is a sign of abolition of alteration, it acts with respect to takes in exactly the same way as to ordinary sharps and flats. For example, if we played fa double sharp and then after a while before the note F a baker appears, then we play a “clean” note "F" .

### So to summarize.

We talked about alteration: we learned what alteration is and what signs of alteration are. Sharp Is a sign of a half-ton increase, flat - This is a sign of lowering the notes by half a ton, and natural - sign of abolition of alteration. In addition, there are so-called doubles: double sharp and double flat - they raise or lower the sound immediately by a whole tone (whole tone - these are two half tones).

That's all! I wish you continued success in mastering musical literacy. Visit us more often, we will analyze other interesting topics. If you liked the material, click “Like” and share information with friends. Now I suggest you take a break and listen to good music in the beautiful performance of the brilliant pianist of today Evgeni Kisin.

Ludwig van Beethoven - Rondo "Rage over a Lost Penniless"

Rosati Trumpet School, Free Translation

## Lessons playing the trumpet. Breath

An important step in the act of breathing is cleaning and thorough analysis.
Here are three main types of inspiration:
1) Nasal - only through the nose, slowly, good for long and controlled sounds and whole phrases when playing the trumpet.
2) Oral - through the corners of the mouth, general and experienced for speed. Helps to keep ear pads while playing the trumpet.
3) Combined - through the mouth and nose, for more confident performers, which gives an enhanced result in contrast to the first two.

NOTE: It is also advisable to breathe through the instrument or mouthpiece - inhale, exhale, this method will help in training the lips and open teeth.

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